To insert exogenous DNA into plant cells, there is not only Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (indirect method), as we show you in the last post, but also chemical-physical methods (direct methods):


✅Permeabilisation of protoplasts
✅ Gene gun
Agrobacterium tumefaciens




Text by Martina Curci, PhD students EpiSeedLink Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions

Frontal image by <a href=”″>Imagen de freepik</a>